We have learned much about controlling the growth and spread of Legionella bacteria in water systems. Health-care facilities are especially vulnerable. ASHRAE-compliant water management programs can reduce the risk for Legionella and other pathogens in their water systems.
To achieve comfort and efficiency in a hot water distribution system, many plumbing engineers are incorporating hot water recirculation systems into their designs. But to reap the benefits of such a system, balancing valves must be incorporated into design considerations.